Interessante onderzoeken

Door Iva Bicanic

Beschrijving:  Binnen 2 jaar moet er een landelijk netwerk zijn van gespecialiseerde centra waar slachtoffers van seksueel geweld zich kunnen melden. Het eerste Centrum Seksueel Geweld opende twee jaar geleden in Utrecht. Slachtoffers van een zedenmisdrijf hoeven dan niet keer op keer te vertellen wat ze hebben meegemaakt. Iva Bicanic is in Utrecht psycholoog en coordinator van het centrum, waar ze de afgelopen 2 jaar zo’n 800 slachtoffers behandelden.

Bronnen:

  1. Lees het radiofragment op de website van Radio1.
  2. Het artikel in de Volkskrant.

 

Door Paula de Jong

OnderzoekImaginaire Rescripting bij PTSS
Jaar: 2011

Onderzoek: Onderzoek behandeling PTSS door kindermisbruik
Beschrijving: Welke behandelvorm zorgt ervoor dat klachten bij mensen die in hun jeugd veelvuldig getraumatiseerd zijn het snelst verminderen? PTSS als gevolg van interpersoonlijk misbruik in de kindertijd is een veelvoorkomende en schadelijke stoornis. Deze PTSS-patiënten kampen vaak met klachten als depressie, middelenmisbruik en persoonlijkheidsproblematiek. Hiervoor bestaan verschillende behandelvormen die al veelvuldig worden toegepast. Het gaat om Imaginaire Exposure, Imaginaire Rescripting en Body Focused Rescripting. Het doel van dit onderzoek was om behandeling voor deze doelgroep te optimaliseren.
Jaar: 2013

OnderzoekEindelijk hulp voor de mishandeling van vroeger
Beschrijving:  Jaarlijks worden minstens 100.000 kinderen mishandeld. Als zij volwassen worden, laat dit vaak sporen na. In vier nieuwe behandelcentra konden deze volwassenen nu in therapie.
Jaar: 2007

 

Door Dr. Roger. K. Pitman, Harvard University

Onderzoek: Effect of Acute Posttrauma Propranolol on PTSD Outcome and Physiological Responses During Script-Driven Imagery
Beschrijving: Animal and human research suggests that the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may involve the overconsolidation of memories of a traumatic experience. Previous studies have attempted to use pharmaceutical agents, especially the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol, to reduce this overconsolidation. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of propranolol in reducing the development of PTSD, we optimized dosages and conducted both psychophysiological and clinical assessments 1 and 3 months after the traumatic event. Forty-one emergency department patients who had experienced a qualifying acute psychological trauma were randomized to receive up to 240 mg/day of propranolol or placebo for 19 days. At 4 and 12 weeks post-trauma, PTSD symptoms were assessed. One week later, participants engaged in script-driven imagery of their traumatic event while psychophysiological responses were measured.
Jaar: 2011

Onderzoek: Pill to calm traumatic memories
Beschrijving: Every day, people suffer traumatic experiences that scar their minds. Combat, rape, bombings, burns, beatings, and horrific car accidents haunt them with memories impossible to suppress. Such day- and nightmares are part of a problem known as post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. I feel that, sooner or later, we will find a drug that can prevent or substantially reduce PTSD,” Pitman says. He and his colleagues tested a tongue-twister of a drug called propranolol on 41 people who had experienced automobile accidents, assaults, and other traumas serious enough for them to be treated at the emergency room of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The goal was to see if this drug, given within six hours of their mishaps, would prevent terrifying, indelible memories.
Jaar: 2004

OnderzoekCushioning Hard Memories
Beschrijving: The more you love a memory,” Vladimir Nabokov once declared, “the stronger and stranger it is.” Certainly we never forget the details of our beloved moments: first kisses, college graduations, our children’s births. “That kind of thing,” said Nabokov, “is absolutely permanent, immortal.” But some ineradicable memories are of things we desperately want to forget. For those who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), vivid recollections of the horrific events they survived or witnessed — wars, rapes, accidents, injuries, concentration camp internments — often return relentlessly for years, evoking the same fear, helplessness, horror, and consequent anguish that accompanied the initial experience. This creates a disabling cycle that can be difficult, if not impossible, to break. Encouraging new research suggests that the beta-blocker drug propranolol, by inhibiting the release of certain stress-related hormones, may stop such unwanted memories from being reinforced in our brains.
Jaar: 2004

OnderzoekPilot Study of Secondary Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Propranolol
Beschrijving: Preclinical considerations suggest that treatment with a !-adrenergic blocker following an acute psychologically traumatic event may reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This pilot study addressed this hypothesis.
Jaar: 2002

 

Door Holmes, Emily A; Brewin, Chris R; Hennessy, Richard G. (2004)

Onderzoek: Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development.
Publicatie: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Vol 133(1) Mar 2004, 3-22.
Beschrijving: Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions and recorded any spontaneous intrusive memories of the film over the following week in a diary. Changes in state dissociation, heart rate, and mood were also measured. As predicted, performing a visuospatial pattern tapping task at encoding significantly reduced the frequency of later intrusions, whereas a verbal distraction task increased them. Intrusive memories were largely unrelated to recall and recognition measures. Increases in dissociation and decreases in heart rate during the film were also associated with later intrusions.

Door Holmes EA, Brown RJ, Mansell W, Fearon RP, Hunter EC, Frasquilho F, Oakley DA. (2004)

Onderzoek: MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CB2 2EF, UK; Traumatic Stress Clinic, Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care Trust, London, UK. Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review
Publicatie: Clin Psychol Rev. 2005 Jan;25(1):1-23.
Beschrijving: This review aims to clarify the use of the term ‘dissociation’ in theory, research and clinical practice. Current psychiatric definitions of dissociation are contrasted with recent conceptualizations that have converged on a dichotomy between two qualitatively different phenomena: ‘detachment’ and ‘compartmentalization’. We review some evidence for this distinction within the domains of phenomenology, factor analysis of self-report scales and experimental research. Available evidence supports the distinction but more controlled evaluations are needed. We conclude with recommendations for future research and clinical practice, proposing that using this dichotomy can lead to clearer case formulation and an improved choice of treatment strategy. Examples are provided within Depersonalization Disorder, Conversion Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Foa, E.B., Hembree, E.A. & Rothbaum, B.O. (2007)

Onderzoek: Prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD: emotional processing of traumatic experiences: therapist guide.
Publicatie: Oxford University Press, USA; 1 edition (March 22, 2007)

Hagenaars, M.A., Minnen, A.v. & Hoogduin, K.A.L. (2009).

Onderzoek: The impact of dissociation and depression on the efficacy of prolonged exposure treatment for PTSD. Behaviour research and therapy, 1-9.
Publicatie: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 1, January 2010, pagina’s 19–27

Humphreys, K.L., Sauder, C.L., Martin, E.K. & Marx, B.P. (2009)

Onderzoek: Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology.
Publicatie: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-16.